What are positive psychology interventions for mental health?

Positive psychological interventions (PPIs) are empirically validated, theory-based instructions, activities, and recommendations designed to improve well-being (Lomas, Hefferon, and Ivtzan, 201. In addition, IPs focus on using positive emotions and strengths to achieve or increase well-being). The results of this meta-analysis show that positive psychology interventions can be effective in improving subjective well-being and psychological well-being, as well as in helping to reduce depressive symptoms. Additional high-quality, peer-reviewed studies in diverse (clinical) populations are needed to strengthen the evidence base for positive psychology interventions. Evidence of publication bias was found in all outcome measures, but to a lesser extent with regard to subjective well-being.

The funnel-shaped graphs were distributed asymmetrically in such a way that smaller studies tended to show the most positive results (in other words, there is a certain lack of small, insignificant studies). Orwin's safety figures, based on a safety criterion, had an effect of 0.10 on subjective well-being (5), psychological well-being (1) and depression (1) were lower than required (150, 110 and 80, respectively). The Egger regression also suggests that there is a publication bias in favor of psychological well-being (intercept=1.18, t=2.26, df=18, p=). Therefore, the average effects of psychological well-being and depression were recalculated.

attributing the missing studies using the Trim and Fill method. Regarding psychological well-being, three studies were imputed and the effect size was adjusted to 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-0.2). For depression, five studies were imputed and the adjusted effect size was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.00-0.3). This meta-analysis synthesized studies on the effectiveness of positive psychological interventions.

After a systematic literature search, 40 articles were included describing 39 studies. The results showed that positive psychology interventions significantly improve subjective and psychological well-being and reduce depressive symptoms. The effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. The average effect size on subjective well-being was 0.34, 0.20 on psychological well-being and 0.23 on depression.

Effect sizes varied widely between studies, ranging from less than 0 (indicating a negative effect) to 2.4 (indicating a very large effect). In addition, after a follow-up of three to six months, small, but still significant, effects were observed on subjective well-being and psychological well-being, indicating that the effects were partially maintained over time. These follow-up results should be treated with caution due to the small number of studies and the high dropout rates during monitoring. This meta-analysis demonstrates that positive psychology interventions can be effective in improving subjective and psychological well-being and can help reduce levels of depressive symptoms.

The results indicate that the effects are partially maintained during short-term follow-up. Although the effects are minor in our meta-analysis, these results can be considered a confirmation of the previous meta-analysis carried out by Sin and Lyubomirsky (200). The interpretation of our findings must take into account the limitations mentioned above and the indications of the bias of publication. Kabat-Zinn's works demonstrated how mindfulness promotes happiness and awareness.

As a positive psychology intervention, mindfulness is used in combination with other psychotherapeutic practices, life coaching, and clinical fields. Popular mindfulness-based PPIs include activities such as sensory awareness, guided meditation, breath control, and careful observation. Niemiec (201) clearly explained the relationship between mindfulness and personal strengths, character formation and the positive results. He indicated that conscious positive interventions that develop intrinsic motivation and support our general well-being include mindfulness-based strength practice (MBSP), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based meditation practices.

It was hypothesized that, first, PPI would have better results than other active psychological interventions to improve well-being and, second, PPI and other active psychological interventions would produce similar effects to reduce depression. The effectiveness of positive psychology interventions was also demonstrated by Michael Fordyce (1977, 198), whose study found that some students who followed a program on happiness obtained more happiness thanks to the fourteen fundamental principles of the psychology of happiness. This new approach represented a drastic change from the previous problematic approach, which dominated psychological thinking for many years and which continues to shape psychological interventions. at present.

While clinical psychology delves into the root cause of illness to help a person recover, positive psychology delves into the root causes of happiness that can help a person protect themselves from negative experiences. A positive psychology intervention (PPI) was defined according to the article by Sin and Lyubomirsky (200) as a psychological intervention (training, exercise, therapy) aimed primarily at increasing positive feelings, positive cognitions or positive behavior, as opposed to interventions aimed at reducing symptoms, problems or disorders. The standardized mean difference was 0.34 for subjective well-being, 0.20 for psychological well-being, and 0.23 for depression, indicating that the effects of positive psychology interventions are small. This combination of interventions may be appropriate when patients are in remission; positive psychology interventions can then be used to reinforce psychological and social resources, increase resilience and prepare to return to normal life.

Positive psychology researchers have devised measures such as the Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the Happiness Scale that objectively measure how satisfied a person is with their life. Although historically, the practice of clinical psychology was mainly limited to people seeking help and to those who already had mental health problems, positive psychology extends to everyone, both those who have a clinical diagnosis and those who do not. A systematic review of randomized trials was planned to assess whether positive psychology is more effective than other active psychological interventions in increasing the well-being of adults suffering from depression. Positive psychology emerged after a good deal of debates and misunderstandings about its capacity to coexist with clinical psychology or of health.

This systematic review assesses whether positive psychological interventions (PPIs) are more effective than other active psychological interventions in increasing the well-being of depressed adults.

Cooper Anderson
Cooper Anderson

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